The non-formal education and migration of the Aeta, an indigenous tribe in the Philippines

  • Nives Ličen University of Ljubljana
  • Katja Lihtenvalner Solidarity Tracks
  • Vesna Podgornik University of Ljubljana
Keywords: community education, non-formal education, Aeta, Zambales, indigenous people, para-teachers


This research into the non-formal education of the Aeta, an indigenous tribe in the Philippines, who became migrants after a volcanic eruption, highlights the significance of community-learning models for the purpose of integrating migrants into a society. The community education system, in which the Aeta are involved, found its inspiration in the Danish model of folk high schools and Freire’s “Pedagogy of the Oppressed”. Their programmes are prepared according to principles of flexibility and inclusiveness. The findings of an analysis of the non-formal education system show that the literacy programme is integrated into community education and activities, which encourages the inclusion of indigenous people in adult learning, and thus also the development of active citizenship, empowerment, an evolving community and the preservation of the Aeta culture.